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Friday, 20 May 2016

Jeonju, Northern Jeolla: Ancestral Seat of the Royal House of Jeonju Yi, Gastronomic Capital of Korea and Provincial Capital of Northern Jeolla since 1896

Jeonju (Hangul/Hanja: 전주시/全州市), is the Provincial Capital of Northern Jeolla Province, Republic of Korea. The name, Jeonju literally means "Perfect State" (from the Hanja 全(전; Jeon) for perfect, 州(주; Ju) for state). It is an important tourist center famous for Korean food (as I thought, Bibimbap), historic buildings, sports activities and innovative festivals. This city known as the “Taste City” where it is renowned for its gastronomy and food industry. With its long-standing tradition in the production of rice cultivated on the Honam Plains, fish and salted fish from the Yellow Sea, fresh vegetables and wild greens from the mountains, Jeonju is recognized as a reference for high quality traditional Korean food. The city has made continual efforts to protect traditional food culture and develop the gastronomy sector. 

The origin of the Greater Jeolla Province sourced from the combination of two cities in the province: Jeonju on North and Naju (North Korean Dialect: Raju, due to Beginning Sound Rule a.k.a Du-eum Beopchik) on South. In fact, Jeonju is the Provincial Capital of Jeolla Province, one of Joseon Dynasty's Eight Principal Provinces until it split into two parts; Northern Jeolla and Southern Jeolla in 1896 under the decree of Emperor Gojong-Gwangmu Yi Myeong-bok (Royal Order No. 36). Jeonju contains two districts, Deokjin-gu (덕진구/德津區) on North and Wansan-gu (완산구/完山區) on South, where these two non-autonomous districts were formed in 1989.

The city was known as Wansan (완산/完山) in 3rd Century of Common Era under Baekje Kingdom, one of Three Kingdoms in Korea. For your information, the southern district of Wansan-gu is taken from the old name of Jeonju in that period. In 685 (5th Reigning Year of King Sinmun of Silla, Silver Jubilee of Baekje's Downfall), it is known as Wansan State (완산주/完山州/Wansan-ju) until King Gyeongdeok changed this state's name into Jeonju. In 1403 (3rd Reigning Year of King Taejong Yi Bang-won), Jeonju elevated its status as Governorate, known as Jeonju-bu (전주부/全州府). In 1949 - four years after Korea's liberation from Japanese Imperialist Forces, it is elevated into city, known as Jeonju City until today.

Located in the fertile Honam Plains - famous for strawberries and exceptional produce, Jeonju has been an important regional center in the province for centuries. Once, the city was the capital of HuBaekje Kingdom, which was founded by Gyeon Hwon in 892, during the turbulent Later Three Kingdoms Period. The city was regarded as the spiritual capital of the Joseon Dynasty because the Royal House of Jeonju Yi originated there. The Gyeonggijeon Shrine inside Royal Portrait Museum a.k.a Eojin Museum kept the portrait of the Founder of Joseon Dynasty, King Taejo Yi Seong-gye and mortuary tablets of the king and his consorts.

Jeonju, like all of Korea, has 4 distinct seasons. They are spring, summer, fall, and winter. The winters can have a mix of days that are cool to days that are quite cold. The colder days are often influenced by a high pressure front that brings cold air from Siberia. In the summer, the humidity over the Korean peninsula from June through September comes from south east Asia. Temperatures in spring (late April and through May) and fall (after September 25 and though October) are often in the mid 20℃ with low humidity. Summer is the best time to visit for those accustomed to hot climates or southern countries. Spring and, especially, fall are the best time to visit for those from northern countries. From the end of September through October, the climate often takes on a Mediterranean feel and is a great time to visit many nearby mountains and rivers, either in Jeonju or nearby Wanju.

Education, tourism and gastronomy are the major industries in the city, but it does not have the manufacturing or heavy industries found in other Korean cities. The local mountains and parks are popular for outdoor recreation due to its rural location. There are also various historical sites in the area. The city also has a zoo, a large park, and the Hanguk Sound and Culture Hall, a large, modern concert complex on the Chonbuk National University campus.

Jeonju was chosen as the UNESCO City of Gastronomy in 2012To support the development of the traditional food culture, Jeonju offers various traditional food and cooking programmes at universities, high schools and private institutions. The city also created the Creative Culinary Institute of Korea and the Bibimbap Globalization Foundation through innovative partnerships involving the public and the private sectors. Additionally, Jeonju’s infrastructure enables the city to host various food festivals including the annual Jeonju Bibimbap Festival and the International Fermented Food Expo, thus contributing to the internationalization of traditional Korean food, while also establishing a model for sustainable development for the food industry of the 21st century.  

The City Hall is located at 10 Nosong Square Avenue/NosongGwangjangno, SeoNosong-dong 568-1 beonji, Jeonju Wansan-gu with its postal code: 54994. The city mayor is Kim Seung-soo (Minjoo Party). While Kim Kwang-soo (People's Party), David Chung Dong-young (People's Party) and Jeong Un-cheon (Saenuri Party) serve as the district assemblymen for 20th Session of Gukhoe (2016-2020). Kim Kwang-soo represents for Jeonju-gap (1st Electoral District that covers JungAng-dong, Pungnam-dong, Nosong-dong, Wansan-dong, DongSeohak-dong, SeoSeohak-dong, Junghwasan 1~2-dong, Pyeonghwa 1~2-dong and Inhu 3-dong), Jeong Un-cheon for Jeonju-eul (2nd Electoral District that covers Seosin-dong, Samcheon 1~3-dong and Hyoja 1~4-dong) and David Chung for Jeonju-byeong (3rd Electoral District that covers Jinbuk-dong, Inhu 1~2-dong, Deokjin-dong, GeumAm 1~2-dong, Palbok-dong, Ua 1~2-dong, Hoseong-dong, Songcheon 1~2-dong, Jochon-dong and Dongsan-dong).

Jeonju City consists two districts (Deokjin-gu on Yellow and Wansan-gu on Green), 33 Administrative Precincts on 83 legal precincts as shown on the map below (in Hangul). 

Thursday, 19 May 2016

Okcheon, Northern Chungcheong: Ancestral Seat of Okcheon-Gwanseong Yook Clan, Hometown of Sir Uam Song Si-yeol and First Lady Yook Young-soo

Okcheon (Hangul/Hanja: 옥천군/沃川郡), is a county located at Southern Bound of Northern Chungcheong Province, Republic of Korea. Located between Sobaek and Noryeong Ranges, this county bordered with Daejeon Dong-gu and Geum River on West, Geumsan County, Southern Chungcheong and Yeongdong County, Northern Chungcheong on South, Mount Pareum and Sangju, Northern Gyeongsang on East and Boeun County, Northern Chungcheong on North. It is the hometown of Neo-Confucian Scholar, Sir Uam Song Si-yeol (1607-1689) and wife of President Park Chung-hee and mother of Current President Park Geun-hye, First Lady Yook Young-soo (1920-1974); as well as the ancestral seat of Okcheon-Gwanseong Yook Clan. The postal codes of Okcheon start from 29000 [850~1214-24 Okcheon Avenue/Okcheonno, Gunbuk-myeon] to 29064 [42~158 Pyeonggye Alley/Pyeonggye-gil, Iwon-myeon].

Okcheon County is originally known as Gosisan County (고시산군/古尸山郡) in Samguk Period, during the reign of King Seong of Baekje. Later, its name was changed to Gwanseong County (관성군/管城郡) during the reign of King Gyeongdeok, 25th King of Silla. Then, during the reign of King Hyeonjong Wang Soon, 8th King of Goryeo Dynasty - it was included in Gyeongsan Governorate (경산부/京山府 = present-day Seongju County, Northern Gyeongsang Province). Hyeonryeong (현령/縣令), the magistrate who controlled the area was assigned during the reign of King Injong Wang Hae, 17th King of Goryeo. However in 1183, King Myeongjong Wang Ho - 19th King of Goryeo temporarily abolished Prefectural Magistrate because of an incident in which Magistrate Hong Eon (홍언/洪彦) was captured and imprisoned by county officials and people.

Then, in 1313, King Chungseon Wang Jang of Goryeo, raised its provincial status to Jiokjusa and gave authority to manage three Prefectures of Isan, Aneup, Yangsan, which were originally part of Gyeongsan Governorate. In 1413, King Taejong Yi Bang-won, 3rd King of Joseon Dynasty named it as Okcheon and transferred its provincial jurisdiction from Gyeongsang Province to Chungcheong Province.

In 1914, Cheongsan and Okcheon Counties were merged into a single county of Okcheon County which is known until today. In 1917, Naenam-myeon was changed to Okcheon-myeon and in April 1st 1929, a reorganization of regional administrative area merged Inam-myeon and Iseo-myeon to become Iwon-myeon, and merged Cheongnam-myeon and Cheongseo-myeon to Cheongseong-myeon. In August 13th 1949, under section 156 of the law, Subuk-ri of Dongi-myeon and Sujung-Okgak Villages of Gunseo-myeon were annexed to Okcheon-myeon while Okcheon-myeon being elevated in status to Okcheon-eup. In July 1st 1973, Usan-ri of Iwon-myeon was annexed to Dongi-myeon, Janggye-ri of Annam-myeon to Annae-myeon and Makji-ri and Yongho-ri of Annae-myeon to Gunbuk-myeon.

The County Office is located at 99 Jungangno, SamYang-ri 174-beonji, Okcheon-eup with its postal code: 29032. The chief of this county is Kim Young-man (Saenuri). In the other hand, Park Deok-heum (Saenuri) served as the assemblyman for Boeun, Okcheon, Yeongdong and Goesan Counties in 20th Session of Gukhoe (2016-2020). Okcheon County contains a town (eup) and 8 communes (myeon) as shown on the map below (in Hangul and Hanja). 

Thursday, 5 May 2016

Buyeo, Southern Chungcheong: Ancestral Seat of Hongsan Soon Clan and Royal House of Buyeo Seo, Ancient Capital of Baekje Kingdom (538-660)

Buyeo (Hangul/Hanja: 부여군/扶餘郡) is a county in Southern Chungcheong Province, Republic of Korea. Buyeo-eup, the county's capital, was the site of the Final Capital City of Baekje from 538-660 (from King Seong's Reign until its downfall during the reign of King Uija), during which it was called Sabi (사비/泗沘). As of November 2014, the area is 624.6 sq km with a population of 71,809. In the province, it is the fifth largest city after Gongju, Seosan, Dangjin, and Cheonan. The postal codes of Buyeo start from 33100 [880~1049 Mansu Avenue/Mansu-ro, Oesan-myeon] to 33232 [1~103-24 Buheung Avenue 987th Street/Buheungno 987beon-gil, Sedo-myeon].

Buyeo is located at the southern area of Southern Chungcheong Province, the heart of the Korean peninsula - bordered with Boryeong City and Seocheon County on West, CheongYang County on North, Gongju and Nonsan on East and Iksan City, Northern Jeolla Province on South. This county shares the same longitude as Wyndham, Australia and the same latitude as Tokyo.

With temperate climate, the average temperature is 12.3°C. The average temperature during winter is -0.5°C and for summer, it is 25.2°C. The deviation of cold and hot temperature is 25.7°CThe annual precipitation is 1,275mm, and the rain is heavy during summer due to the high pressure from the North Pacific.

Buyeo is flanked with several mountains such as Mount Seongtae and Mount Jogong on North, Mount Mansu, Mount Wolmyeong, and Mount Bihong on West, Mount Seongheung and Taebong Peak on South, and Charyeong Range that stretches out from northeast to the southwest. Mount Buso and Mount Geumseong; two mountains which are served for the stronghold of the Baekje Capital is located in downtown Buyeo-eup. This cragged and ridged terrain has some advantages for Baekje Kingdom to protect its Final Capital City until its downfall during the reign of King Uija.

In 757 (16th Reigning Year of King Gyeongdeok of Silla), the former capital of Baekje divided into two prefectures and two counties which are Buyeo Prefecture, Garim County, Seokseong Prefecture and Imcheon County. In 1019 (10th Reigning Year of King Hyeonjong Wang Soon), all four areas were upgraded into prefectures. However in 1413 (13th Reigning Year of King Taejong Yi Bang-won), Imcheon-hyeon degraded its status into County (Imcheon-gun). In 1896, Emperor Gojong-Gwangmu Yi Myeong-bok of Korean Empire revamped the administration areas of Korea where Buyeo, Garim, Seokseong and Imcheon Counties were included in Southern Chungcheong Province. In 1914 (Japanese Imperialism Period), all four counties were merged into a single county named Buyeo and known until today.

The County Office is located at 33 Sabi Avenue/Sabi-ro, Dongnam-ri 725-beonji, Buyeo-eup with its postal code: 33168. The chief of this county is Lee Yong-woo (Saenuri). In the other hand, Chung Jin-suk (Saenuri) served as the assemblyman for Gongju City, Buyeo and CheongYang Counties in 20th Session of Gukhoe (2016-2020). Buyeo County contains a town (eup) and 15 communes (myeon) as shown on the map below (in Hangul and Hanja). 

Wednesday, 4 May 2016

Incheon Bupyeong-gu: Site of the Former Bupyeong Protectorate during Joseon Period and Home of General Motors Korea

Bupyeong-gu (Hangul/Hanja: 부평구/富平區) is a district located in Eastern Incheon Metropole, Republic of Korea. This district borders with Incheon Gyeyang-gu on North, Bucheon Wonmi-gu and Bucheon Sosa-gu, Gyeonggi Province on East, Incheon Nam-gu and Incheon Namdong-gu on South and Incheon Seo-gu on West. The postal codes of Bupyeong-gu start from 21300 [306~341 Seodal Avenue/Seodallo] to 21460 [406 Munemi Road/Munemi-ro]

Bupyeong is originally developed as region that was different from Incheon. It was called Jubuto-gun (주부토군/主夫吐郡) of Goguryeo during the 58th Reigning Year of King Jangsu (470). After that, it was called Jangje-gun (장제군/長齊郡) during the 16th reigning year of King Gyeongdeok of Unified Silla dynasty (757). It was referred to by names Suju, Annam, Gyeyang, Gilju, and Bupyeong during the Goryeo Dynasty, and it was also referred to as Bupyeong during the Joseon Dynasty.

Old Bupyeong was an administrative district, distinctive from Incheon, before 1914, when the Japanese colonial government merged it with outer parts of old Incheon into Bucheon County. Bupyeong Protectorate (i.e. Bupyeong-dohobu/부평도호부/富平都護府) consisted of today's Bupyeong-gu, Gyeyang-gu, Seo-gu (except Geomdan) in Incheon, Bucheon City in Gyeonggi, and western part of Guro-gu in Seoul. In 1895, Bupyeong Protectorate was degraded to Bupyeong County. The city center was in Gyesan-dong, present-day Incheon Gyeyang-gu. The two remaining buildings of the Bupyeong prefecture office are located in Bupyeong Elementary School. It should be noted that only Sipjeong-dong was part of Juan township of old Incheon Protectorate, other than old Bupyeong.

Old Bupyeong was traditionally a district of higher hierarchy than old Incheon in the administrative district system before Incheon became a metropolitan prefecture in early Joseon, and was a military centre for coastal Gyeonggi area, covering old Incheon, Tongjin, Gimpo, Yangcheon, Ansan, Siheung, Gwacheon, and so on.

This area was included in Bucheon County (later as Bucheon City), Bunae-myeon in 1914, and it was first included in Incheon Governorate in 1940. It must noted that after the 1970s, Seo-gu and Gyeyang-gu were separated due to the rapid expansion taking place from the acceleration of industrial development and construction of big apartment complexes. On March 1, 1995, its name was changed from Buk-gu to Bupyeong-gu, a district with 22 dongs. The office building of Bupyeong-gu moved to its current location on October 1, 1996. Bupyeong-gu was created as its own ward in 1995 when 'Buk-gu' was split into 'Gyeyang-gu' and 'Bupyeong-gu' due to rapid growth in the region. Before the 1970s, much of the area was rich farmland. However, with rapid industrial development and the construction of large apartment complexes, the farmland quickly disappeared leaving what is today a large urban district.

At the core of the district lies Bupyeong Station. The station lies at the intersection of the Incheon Metro Line 1, KORAIL-Seoul Metro Line 1 and SMRT Line 7, instantly making it one of the busiest subway stations in all of Korea. The area around Bupyeong Station includes the Bupyeong Underground Market, which boasts hundreds of small shops selling mostly clothing and make-up, and the Bupyeong Cultural Street, a walking street which holds several performances and cultural events throughout the year. The area also contains many restaurants and bars, making it a popular weekend destination for residents of Incheon. Nearby is Bupyeong Market, a large traditional market where vendors sell fresh meat, produce, and traditional medicine.

GM Korea, formerly General Motors-Daewoo Auto and Technology (GMDAT), has its company headquarters and largest automobile manufacturing plant in Bupyeong. The GM Korea Design Center, which is said to "play an important role in GM's Global Design organization," is located there. This factory produces mass productions of models such as Buick LaCrosse, Opel Mokka, Chevrolet Trax, Chevrolet Malibu, Chevrolet Captiva and Chevrolet Sonic.

The District Office is located at 168 Bupyeong Boulevard/Bupyeong-daero, Bupyeong 4-dong 879-beonji with its postal code: 21354. The mayor of this district is Hong Mi-young (Minjoo Party). While Chung Yoo-sup (Saenuri) and Hong Young-pyo (Minjoo Party) serve as the district assemblymen for 20th Session of Gukhoe (2016-2020). Chung Yoo-sup represents for Incheon Bupyeong-gap (1st Electoral District that covers Bupyeong 1~6-dong, Bugae 1-dong, Ilsin-dong, Sipjeong 1~2-dong, SanGok 3~4-dong) while Hong Young-pyo represents for Incheon Bupyeong-eul (2nd Electoral District that covers SanGok 1~2-dong, Cheongcheon 1~2-dong, Galsan 1~2-dong, Samsan 1~2-dong, Bugae 2~3-dong).

Bupyeong-gu consists 22 administrative precincts (행정동) on 9 legal precincts (법정동) as shown on the map below (in Hangul). 

Hwasun, Southern Jeolla: Starting Point of Zen Buddhism in Korea

Hwasun (Hangul/Hanja: 화순군/和順郡) is a county in Southern Jeolla Province, Republic of Korea. Situated in the center of Southern Jeolla, this county borders with Suncheon City ang Gokseong County on east, Naju City on west, Boseong and Jangheung Counties on south, Gwangju Metropole (Dong-gu and Nam-gu), Damyang and Gokseong Counties on North. The county insignia of Hwasun shows the county flower, chamomile with 13 cloves that denotes a town (eup) and 12 communes (myeon) in that county. The postal codes of Hwasun start from 58100 [2~23 Kangnye Alley/Gangnye-gil, Buk-myeon] to 58165 [40-1~40-3 Jopyeong Alley/Jopyeong-gil, Cheongpung-myeon].

The county is adjacent to Gwangju Metropole and is well known as its green area with mountains and clean water where various culture, tourism and leisure facilities are well equipped including the Dolmen Park, a world heritage where over 1,000 year old culture is kept alive, Unjusa Temple, a mystical antique temple keeping the legend of 'thousands of statue of the Buddha and pagoda', Ssangbongsa Temple, the place where the Zen sect of Buddhism in Korea first started, hot spring resorts and golf courses, and recreation forest.

It becomes a key point of traffic running in all directions and a pleasant place to live in. It is also seeking to assert itself by trying to become a city of medical and biotechnology complex by setting a solid foundation for bio-pharmaceutical industry through attracting companies such as, Green Cross, the only vaccine manufacturing factory in Korea, and Chonnam National University Hospital.

Before Hwasun became an administrative community in the Japanese Empire, individual culture was formed along three rivers: Jiseokcheon River to Neungju, Hwasuncheon River to Hwasun, and Dongbokcheon River to Dongbok. Recently relics in the Stone Age (residential remains) and in the Middle Stone Age were found in Juam Dam at Daejeon Village, Sasu-ri, Nam-myeon, showing that people lived from old times. Bronze Age remains include 1,180 dolmens and a variety of remains excavated in a stone-lines tomb at Daegok-ri(including National Tresture No. 143, bronze knife and bronze mirror). A pit-tomb in the Baekje Period was found at the site of Unjusa Temple.
It is considered that Yeoraebiriguk (여래비리국) was located in Neungju and Hwasun regions and Byeokbiriguk (벽비리국) was located in Dongbok region. These areas are out of 54 Regions of Mahan Confederacy during Samhan Period. Three Prefectures of Hwasun, Neungju and Dongbok maintained independent administrative system and they were divided into: Ireungburi County (이릉부리군/爾陵夫里郡: area of Neungju) having a broad plain ; Ingnia Prefecture (仍利阿縣/잉리아현: area of Hwasun) which is located along the edge of the river; and Dubuji Prefecture (豆夫只縣/두부지현: area of Dongbok) where a pot-shape rock is located.

As King Gyeongdeok of Silla implemented a nationwide policy to making place names in Chinese characters and two syllables, the names of those hyeons were changed: Ireungburi-gun (爾陵夫里郡) into Neungseong-gun (陵城郡); Ingria-hyeon (仍利阿縣) into Yeomi-hyeon (汝湄縣); and Dubuji-hyeon (豆夫只縣) into Dongbok-hyeon, which belonged into Gokseong County. In 940 (23rd Reigning Year of King Taejo Wang Geon of Goryeo), the names of those hyeons were changed again: Neungseong-hyeon changes its name in Alternate Hanja character of Neungseong-hyeon (綾城縣); Yeomihyeon into Hwasunhyeon (和順縣); and Dongbokhyeon (同福縣) became to be belonged into Boseong County in 1018. 

In 1143, for the first time, the central government dispatched an administrative official titled Gammu (監務: Governor of county) to Neungseong-hyeon and, in around 1280, in the era of King Chungnyeol, Gammu was also dispatched to Dongbok for the first time for the reason that it was the hometown of famous national monk Joyoungguksa or Joyeumguksa (祖英 or 祖琰) and, in 1390, the late Goryeo Dynasty, A Gammu was also dispatched to Hwasun and he also governed Nampyeong-hyeon. At that time, direct administration of central government reached into those regions. Prior to dispatching Gammu, all of these regions were self-governed villages and were considered to be indirectly governed by wealthy local farmers and self-governed villages located in Dongbok-hyeon were divided into Boryeong-hyeon (保寧縣: area of current Iseo-myeon), Daegok-hyeon (大谷縣: area of current Nammyeon), Suchon-hyeon (水村縣: area of current Suri, Bukmyeon) and Apgok-hyeon (鴨谷縣: Okri, Hyeonbuk-myeon).

Even during several years, these three Hyeons were repeatedly consolidated and divided: in 1396, for the first time, Hwasun-hyeon was removed and the region consisted of only Neungseong-hyeon and Dongbokgammu (also ruled Hwasunhyeon and the region was divided; into Neungseong-hyeon and Hwasungammu (also ruled Dongbok) in 1405; into Neungseong-hyeon and Boksun-hyeon (福順縣: Dongbok and Hwasun were condolidated) in 1407; Neungsunghyeon and Hwasun-hyeon (also ruled Dongbok) in 1413; into Sunseong-hyeon (順城縣. consolidated Hwasun and Neungseong) in 1416; into Neungseong-hyeon, Hwasun-hyeon and Dongbok-hyeon in 1418 when consolidation of these three areas was impossible. 

In 1597 when the damage from Japanese JeongYu Incursion (part of Imjin Invasion) was too severe, the residents of Hwasun-hyeon by themselves voluntarily consolidate the area into Neungseong-hyeon and, only in 1611, Hwasun-hyeon was restored. In memorizing that restoration, the residents planted a ginkgo tree in the location at current Hwasun-gun Office. In 1632, 10 years after from Injobanjeong (enthronement of a new king), Neungseong-hyeon ranked up by one level for the reason that the region is hometown of the Empress Inheon who is the mother of King Injo. Thereafter, the Hwasun region continued to be divided into Neungjumok, Hwasunhyeon and Dongbokhyeon until the period of the Republic of Korea, while Dongbokhyeon was consolidated into Hwasunhyeon for a while because its official residence and picture of King were burnt by a fire in 1655. 

In May 1, 1895 when local administrative districts were reformed, that region was divided into Neungju-gun, Hwasun-gun and Dongbok-gun and, on Oct. 15, 1908, in Japanese occupation, that region was divided into Neungju-gun and Dongbok-gun by removing Hwasun-gun to be consolidated into Neungju-gun. Neungju-gun was renamed as Hwasun-gun and the region was divided into Hwasun-gun and Dongbok-gun and, on Mar. 1, 1914, even Dongbok-gun was removed and consolidated into Hwasun-gun. It is the time when the current shape administrative district was firstly formed.

The region was adjusted into 13 myeons and current Eup/Myeon system was arranged and, on Jan. 1, 1963, Hwasun-myeon, where the county office is located, was raised to the status of an Eup. (Act No. 1177 for Establishment of Eup and Myeon) and, on May 18, 1966, the local offices of Yeong-oe, Mukgok and Yonggang were established, respectively (No. 122, Ordinance of Hwasun County).

The County Office is located at 23 Dongheon Alley/Dongheon-gil, Hun-ri 35-beonji, Hwasun-eup with its postal code: 58112. The chief of this county is Koo Chung-kon (Minjoo Party). In the other hand, Son Geum-ju (People's Party) served as the assemblyman for Naju City and Hwasun County in 20th Session of Gukhoe (2016-2020). The administrative region details of Hwasun County as shown on the map below (in Hangul and Hanja). 

Monday, 2 May 2016

Yeongcheon, Northern Gyeongsang: Ancestral Seat of Yeongcheon Hwangbo Clan and Astrological Hub in Daegu-Gyeongbuk Region

Yeongcheon (Hangul/Hanja: 영천시/永川市) is a city in Northern Gyeongsang Province, Republic of Korea. Located 350 km southeast of Seoul, this city is bordered with Gyeongju and Pohang on east, Gyeongsan and Daegu Metropole on west, Cheongdo County on South and Cheongsong and Gunwi Counties on North. The postal codes of Yeongcheon start from 38800 [5-13~23-41 Daehak-gil, Sinnyeong-myeon] to 38913 [2~230-1 Hyoil-gil, Daechang-myeon].

There are remains which indicate human inhabited here in Yeongcheon, the source of Geumho River since Prehistoric age. During Samhan period, the tribal state called Golbeolsoguk (골벌소국/骨伐小國) was formed. After King Aeumbu of Golbeolsoguk surrendered to the 11th King of Silla, King Jobun-Isageum in 236CE, Yeongcheon and Sinnyeong provinces became Jeolyahwa County (절야화군/切也火郡) and Sajeonghwa Prefecture (사정화현/史丁火縣) respectively. Then Jeolyahwa-gun and Sajeonghwa-hyeon were renamed Imgo County in the 16th year of King Gyeongdeok of Silla (757CE). And Imgo-gun was renamed Goul Governorate in the second year of King Gyeong-ae (925CE), which was later to be divided into four smaller prefectures - Dodong-hyeon, Imcheon-myeon, Myeonbaek-hyeon and Iji-hyeon.

At the early year of Goryeo Dynasty, Yeongju-gun (영주군/永州郡, not to be confused with modern-day Yeongju City at the Northern tip of Northern Gyeongsang Province) was formed by merging the prefectures of Dodong-hyeon and Yimcheon-hyeon. And in the 14th year of King Seongjong Wang Chi, 'Jasa (later Jijusa in 1388)', the highest ranking government official at county-level was dispatched to govern Yeongju-gun. Sinnyeong-hyeon was restored at the time of King Gongmin.

Yeongju-gun during Goryeo Dynasty was renamed Yeongcheon-gun in 1413 (13th year of King Taejong Yi Bang-won), governed by 'Jigunsa (the magistrate of a county) and Gunsu (the magistrate of a county) in the 12th year of King Sejo (1467). Sinnyeong-hyeon was annexed to Yeongcheon-gun in the third year of King Yeonsan, which was later restored in the 9th year of that terrible king. Yeongcheon-gun was downgraded to Yeongcheon-hyeon due to the treachery by military officers in 1522, which was later restored to Yeongcheon-gun in 1533.

Yeongcheon has temperate monsoon climate whose temperature difference is quite large between summer and winter seasons, which is typical to Korea Peninsula. In summer season, Yeongcheon has a climate of high temperature and humidity influenced by oceanic climate while it shows cold and dry climate in the winter time due to a continental climate, thus resulting in extremely large temperature differences in both in summer and winter. The average, the highest and the lowest temperatures for the last 30 years were 12.3°C and 39.4°C(1994.7.20), -20.5°C(1981.1.17) respectively, while average precipitation and sunshine duration per year are 1,021.8mm.

As a rural city, many of Yeongcheon's citizens farm to earn their living. The most well-known crop is the grape, which is generally large, seeded and often peeled before consuming (due to Koreans' concern over fertilizers and pesticides). The Bohyeon Mountain Starlight Festival takes place in summer and is centered in the Bohyeon Mountain Observatory, which houses the third-largest telescope in Korea. In late summer, the Grape Festival takes place, hosting events such as the Miss Grape contest and a grape-eating competition. Yeongcheon is also well known for its Herbal Medicine Festival, which takes place in October and hosts traditional singing and lots of herbs.

The City Hall is located at 16 Sicheongno, Munoe-dong 27-beonji with its postal code: 38856. The current city mayor is Kim Yeong-seok (Saenuri). In the other hand, Lee Man-hee (Saenuri) serves as the assemblyman for Yeongcheon City-Cheongdo County in 20th Session of Gukhoe (2016-2020). Yeongcheon City consists a town (eup), 10 communes (myeon), 5 Administrative Precincts on 30 legal precincts as shown on the map below (in Hangul). 

Sunday, 1 May 2016

Dalseong County, Daegu Metropole: Ancestral Seat of Hyeonpung-Posan Kwak Clan and County of Flowers in Daegu Metropole

Dalseong (Hangul/Hanja: 달성군/達城郡) is a county occupying much of south and western Daegu Metropole, Republic of Korea. A largely rural district lying along the Nakdong River, it makes up nearly half of Daegu's total area. It is divided in half by a narrow piece of Daegu Dalseo-gu that reaches west to the river. Like the other local government units in Korea, Dalseong County enjoys a moderate degree of local autonomy. The county magistrate and council are elected by the local citizens, although their authority is sharply curtailed. The postal codes of Dalseong County start from 42900 [27-15 Heolti Avenue 10th Street/Heolti-ro 10(sip)-gil, Gachang-myeon] to 43024 [2~60-24 Techno Central Boulevard 1st Street/Techno Jungang-daero 1(il)-gil, Yuga-myeon].

The original name, Dalguhwa was changed to Dalgubeol, Dalbul, and finally Dalseong. When the region became the capital area of the Silla Dynasty, Dalseong was included in Suchang County (Suseong County, later Suseong-gu) as a hyeon (prefecture), and its name was changed to Seodaegu-hyeon (West Daegu Prefecture) in 757 AD (16th year of the reign of King Gyeongdeok).

After that, four Prefectures - Daegu-hyeon (Dalseong), Palgeo-hyeon (Daegu North-Chilgok), Habin-hyeon (Dasa, Dalseo-Seongseo and Habin), and Hwawon-hyeon (Dalseo-Wolbae, Hwawon and Okpo) all became part of Gyeongsan Governorate (Seongju) in 1018 (9th year of the reign of King Hyeonjong Wang Soon). When a government official, Hyunryeonggwan, was posted to Daegu-hyeon (Dalseong), its status was upgraded, and Habin-hyeon and Hwawon-hyeon became part of Daegu-hyeon (Dalseong).

In 1419 (First Reigning year of King Sejong the Great of Joseon), Daegu-hyeon (Dalseong) was upgraded to Dalseong-gun, and it directly governed Habin, Suseong, and Haean-hyeon. Dalseong-gun became part of Daegu-bu (Daegu Governorate) according to the revision of the local district system in 1895 (late part of Joseon Dynasty, 32nd year of the reign of Emperor Gojong-Gwangmu Yi Myeong-bok). With the consolidation of bu, gun, and myeon in March 1914, the outskirts of Daegu-bu and Hyeonpung-gun were consolidated into Dalseong-gun, which included 16 myeons, including Suseong-myeon, in its district.

As the administrative district of Daegu-bu was extended during Japanese Imperialism Period, Suseong-myeon, Dalseo-myeon, and Seongbuk-myeon were incorporated into Daegu-bu, which left 13 myeons in Dalseong-gun, including Haean (Dongcheon)-myeon. With the enforcement of the Local Autonomy Act on Aug. 15, 1949, Daegu-bu became Daegu-si (city). Dalseong-gun became part of Daegu Metropole in 1995, as part of a general reform of local governments. Dalseong County consists of three towns (eup) and six communes (myeon).

With 4 industrial complexes holding 900 businesses, Dalseong Industrial Complex II, and Daegu Technopolis, which is currently under construction and expected to be an R&D hub in the southeast region, Dalseong-gun is transforming from an agricultural/urban city into a cutting-edge science/technology industrial city. In addition, beautiful mountains and waterfront spaces, such as Mt. Biseul, the Nakdong River, the Geumho River, and the many well-maintained green zones in Dalseong-gun form the green/waterfront axis of Daegu Metropole, playing the role of “lung city” to Daegu.

The County Office is located at 33 Dalseong County Office Road/DalseongGuncheongno, Geumpo-ri 1313-beonji, NonGong-eup with its postal code: 42974. The chief of this county is Kim Moon-oh (Saenuri) and Choo Kyung-ho (Saenuri) as the county assemblyman for 20th Session of Gukhoe (2016-2020). The administrative region details of Dalseong County as shown on the map below (in Hangul). 

Andong, Northern Gyeongsang: Ancestral Seat of Andong Jang, Kwon and Kim Clans and Provincial Capital of Northern Gyeongsang since 2016

Andong (Hangul/Hanja: 안동시/安東市) is a provincial capital of Northern Gyeongsang Province, Republic of Korea. It is the largest city in the northern part of the province with a population of 167,821, based on the census provided by Statistics Korea (KOSTAT) in 2010. The Nakdong River flows through the city. Andong is a market center for the surrounding agricultural areas. Since the 1970s Andong has developed rapidly, although the population has fallen by nearly seventy thousand as people have moved away to Seoul and other urban centers. In the late 1990s and early 2000s it became a tourism and cultural center.

Andong is known as a center of culture and folk traditions. The surrounding area maintains many ancient traditions, so in mid October the Andong Folk Festival is held every year. One of the most famous aspects of these cultural festivities are the Andong masks. The postal codes of Andong start from 36600 [6~86 Gojeong Alley/Gojeong-gil, Nokjeon-myeon] to 36760 [2-1~36 Hyobugol Alley/Hyobugol-gil, Pungcheon-myeon].

Around 1 BC, Andong was founded by the Jinhan people, and it was known as Gochang. During the Three Kingdoms period, the area was controlled by the Silla kingdom. The Battle of Gochang in 930 was fought here between Hubaekje forces and the Goryeo army led by Wanggeon, who won control of the city and renamed it Andong.

After the ascent of the Joseon dynasty to the throne of Korea, Andong became a centre of Confucianism. The area was extremely conservative for a long time and produced many leading confucian scholars. Toe-gye Yi Hwang (1501–70), one of the most prominent of all Korean scholars, came from Andong. Yi Hwang retired back to his homeland late in life and started the establishment of the great Confucian academy Dosan Seowon there, which was finished after his death. During this period Andong and its principal families were influential within Korean political circles, of which the three notable families were the Andong Kim, Andong Jang and Andong Kwon clans. After the 16th century Andong became less influential until the early 19th century, when a marriage of the local Kim family resulted in strong influence on the royal family.

Andong was the site of intense fighting during the Korean War in the early 1950s, the Battle of Andong. Although the city was almost destroyed, it was quickly rebuilt. In 1976 the Andong Dam was built, providing the city with a reliable source of electricity.

In 1999, Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom celebrated her 73rd birthday in the city. There is an exhibit dedicated to this historic visit at Hahoe folk village museum. Andong soju is made using traditional methods that are centuries old unlike its popular modern counterparts. It is protected by government regulation to preserve authenticity and commands a steep premium in the marketplace.

Andong has famous local foods that originated in the city such as heotjesabap, Andong jjimdak, Andong soju (a rice wine), Andong sikhye (a punch), Geonjin guksu (a noodle dish), and salted mackerel.

Heotjesabap is a variety of bibimbap, served with soy sauce (ganjang) instead of the gochujang (hot pepper paste) that is more commonly used. Heotjesa bap consists mainly of several types of namul (young sprouted vegetables) over white rice. It is also served with grilled fish, shark, and jeon (Korean pancake). The dish originated in Andong. The term, Heotjesa bap literally means "dishes for fake jesa" that are ceremonies for death anniversary and ancestor veneration held in Korea. The reason it is considered fake is that it is not covered in incense ash, as would happen to any food sacrificed in a jesa ritual.

Andong jjimdak (안동찜닭) is a variety of jjim (a Korean steamed or braised dish), made with chicken, cellophane noodles, and various vegetables marinated in a ganjang (Korean soy sauce) based sauce. The name literally means "steamed chicken of Andong." There are many speculations on the origins of the dish. One is that the it is a specialty food of the inner rich village of Andong during the Joseon period, prepared and eaten for special occasions. The more likely explanation is that during the 1980s in the Dak golmok (닭골목, literally "chicken alley") of the "Andong Old Market," restaurant owners there made a dish including ingredients that regulars demanded, which became the current Andong jjimdak. Restaurateurs in the area claim it was invented by five local old women who had limited chicken supplies and wanted to stretch it out. The most plausible speculation among existing assumptions is that merchants of the Dak golmok at the market created the dish to keep their position against the rapid expansion of Western fried chicken shops.

Andong Soju is a specialty of the region. It is made with natural ingredients, unlike mass-produced brands, it was historically used for medicinal purposes, and was developed during the Silla dynasty. The traditions of Andong Soju were almost lost during the '60s and '70s due to government legislation, but they were brought back by Cho Ok-hwa, the current skillholder. Andong soju was traditionally made by the wife of a household, and she passed down the secrets to her daughters-in-law.

Mackerel is another popular local delicacy. Caught downstream where the Nakdong River meets the sea, in ancient times the fish would spoil before being brought further inland. Using special salting techniques, Andong was the furthest inland the fish could be brought, so aristocrats would travel to Andong specially for the salted fish.

Sikhye is a fermented rice punch served across Korea. The Andong variety, however, is particularly spicy, made with powdered red pepper, ginger, and radish. Sikhye contains lactobacillus, a benign strain of bacteria found in the gastrointestinal tract, and often used as a digestive aid in dishes including kimchi, yogurt, and sauerkraut, among others.

The City Hall is located at 115 Toegye Avenue/Toegye-ro, Myeongnyun-dong 344-beonji with its postal code: 36691. The current city mayor is a native Andong Citizen from Andong Kwon Clan - Kwon Young-se (Saenuri), while Kim Gwang-rim (Saenuri) as the city assemblyman for 20th Session of Gukhoe (2016-2020). Andong City consists a town (eup), 13 communes (myeon), 10 Administrative Precincts on 43 legal precincts as shown on the map below (in Hangul and Hanja).


Downtown Andong

Miryang, Southern Gyeongsang: Ancestral Seat of Miryang-Milseong Son Clan and Home of Miryang Arirang

Miryang (Hangul/Hanja: 밀양시/密陽市) is a city in Southern Gyeongsang Province, Republic of Korea. Neighboring cities include Changnyeong County to the west, Cheongdo County, Northern Gyeongsang Province to the north, Ulsan Metropole to the east, and Yangsan, Gimhae, and Changwon to the south. The city bird is the Korean magpie, the city tree is the pine, and the city flower is the royal azalea. The postal codes of Miryang start from 50400 [3~23 Gobeop 1st Street/Gobeop 1(il)-gil, Cheongdo-myeon] to 50467 [4~18 Husongan Alley/Husongan-gil, Samnangjin-eup].

The recorded history of Miryang begins in the Samhan period, when it was known as Mirimidongguk (미림미동국/彌離彌凍國). Due to its strategic location near the Nakdong River, Miryang played an important role from the Silla period forward. It served as an important station on the Great Yeongnam Road during the later Joseon Dynasty, and in the 20th century it became a station on the Gyeongbu Line railroad that connects Busan to Seoul. Miryang remains a key stop along that line, and is now the only city between Busan and Daegu served by KTX express trains.

Miryang is known around Korea for the Miryang Arirang and for the view from the Yeongnamnu pavilion, subject of numerous poems from the Joseon Dynasty. Other noted landmarks include Eoreumgol and the temple of Pyochungsa. Famous people from Miryang include 15th-century Neo-Confucian scholar Kim Jong-jik and 16th-century warrior-monk Songun Yu Jeong. The city government works actively to maintain the memory of these figures, and of other local cultural features such as the tale of Arang.

During the Samhan period, Miryang may have been part of the territory of Mirimidongguk, one of the Byeonhan tribes mentioned in the Samgukji. Thereafter, it is believed to have been ruled by Geumgwan Gaya before being annexed by Silla. The Samguk Sagi records Mirimidongguk as being annexed by King Jijeung-Maripgan of Silla in 505 CE. In this period it was known as Chuhwa County (추화군/推火郡). Under the general reformation of names carried out by King Gyeongdeok in the 8th century, the name was changed to Milseong County (밀성군/密城郡).

In the Goryeo period (935-1392), Miryang was elevated to the status of a ju (state), Mil-ju, by King Seongjong Wang Chi. In 1194, Miryang was the site of a massive battle between royal forces and a massive rebel army led by Kim Sami of Cheongdo and Hyosim of Ulsan. More than 7000 rebels were slain. Under King Chungnyeol Wang Geo in the late 13th century, local residents led by Jo Cheon rose up against the government; in retaliation, Mil-ju was demoted to a tributary village of Gyeongju (then Gyerim). Later it became a hyeon (prefecture). Under King Gongyang, it was raised to the status of a bu (governorate).

With the dawn of the Joseon period (1392-1910), Miryang first became known by its modern name. Initially demoted from bu to gun (county) by King Taejo Yi Seong-gye, it was then raised back to bu and its name changed from "Milseong" to "Miryang." Under Taejo's son King Taejong Yi Bang-won, it was once again demoted to gun. Later it became a dohobu, or military protectorate, and in 1895 it became a gun once again; it was to carry this status until late in the 20th century.

Under Japanese rule, Miryang was the site of various clashes between the Korean independence movement and the occupation forces. During the March First Movement of 1919, approximately 13,500 Miryang residents took part in peaceful demonstrations in support of Korean independence. This led to the "Miryang massacre," in which 150 Korean civilians were shot by occupation troops. In November 1920, independence fighter Choe Su-bong built and detonated two bombs at the Miryang police station, destroying the structure. He attempted to kill himself but was unsuccessful; later he was put to death and his accomplices were imprisoned.

In 1989 the city center was separated from the rest of Miryang and named "Miryang-si" (Miryang City). In 1995 the city center was reunited with the hinterland and the entire region became known as Miryang-si. Both of these were part of general reorganizations of South Korean local government.

Miryang's geography is heavily influenced by the two rivers which flow through it, the Miryang and Nakdong Rivers. All of Miryang lies within the Nakdong basin, and the Nakdong River itself runs along Miryang's southern border. The city's topography generally slopes from the high peaks of the Yeongnam Alps in the northeast to the Nakdong valley in the southwest. Much of the city is drained by the Miryang River, which rises in western Ulsan and flows through the city center to join the Nakdong at Samnangjin. Portions are drained by other Nakdong tributaries, including the Naejincheon.

The Miryang River valley south of the city center broadens into a fertile plain. This area, including large portions of Samnangjin-eup, Sangnam-myeon, and Hanam-eup, serves as a local breadbasket and is almost entirely devoted to rice-farming. In Hanam-eup, it joins another plain running along the Nakdong.

As elsewhere in the Yeongnam region, the landscape is very lumpy, with many craggy hills and low mountains. The highest mountain in Miryang is Mount Gaji (1240 m), which stands on the northern border. Other high peaks along the border include Mount Hwaak and Mount Cheonhwang (also called Mount Jaeyak). These peaks are part of the Yeongnam Alps, a branch of the Taebaek Range.

Further south, the mountains are lower but still quite frequent. Notable peaks in this area include Mount Man-eo in Samnangjin and Mount Cheontae on the border with Yangsan. Steep mountain valleys abound; these are often used for reservoirs that store water for irrigation or drinking purposes. Some of the larger reservoirs in Miryang include Miryang Lake and Antae Lake.

Like most of the rest of South Korea, Miryang enjoys a relatively mild temperate climate. The average windspeed is about 1.4 m/s, the average temperature 14.4 C, and the annual rainfall in 2004 was 1,377.40 mm. The mountains along its north flank afford Miryang a measure of shelter from heavy winds and other severe weather coming from the north. On the other hand, it is relatively vulnerable to damage from tropical storms encroaching from the south. The Miryang and Nakdong valleys are subject to frequent floods during typhoons, as well as more predictable flooding during the monsoon season. Other natural disasters are uncommon.

Miryang is known as the home of the Miryang arirang. This is sometimes considered to be close to the original version of the arirang, which may have drawn its name from the Miryang area folktale of Arang. The Miryang Arirang Festival is held each May to commemorate and keep alive this tradition and other aspects of local heritage. Other preserved aspects of Korean traditional culture are the Baekjung performances. The people of Miryang speak a version of the Gyeongsang dialect of Korean. In studies of Korean dialectology, Miryang dialect has been contrasted with the Changwon dialect in terms of the use of pitch.

The City Hall is located at 2047 Miryang Boulevard/Miryang-daero, Gyodong 1000-1 beonji with its postal code: 50420. The current city mayor is Park Il-ho (Saenuri). In the other hand, the former Mayor of Miryang - Uhm Yong-soo (Saenuri) serves as the assemblyman for Miryang City-Uiryeong, Haman and Changnyeong Counties in 20th Session of Gukhoe (2016-2020). Miryang City consists 2 towns (eup), 9 communes (myeon), 5 Administrative Precincts on 8 legal precincts as shown on the map below (in Hangul and Hanja). 

Gimhae, Souhern Gyeongsang: Ancestral Seat of the Royal Houses of Gimhae-Garak Kim and Heo, Ancient Capital of Geumgwan Gaya and Hometown of President Roh Moo-hyun

Gimhae (Hangul/Hanja: 김해시/金海市) is a city in Southern Gyeongsang Province, Republic of Korea. It is the seat of Gimhae Kim and Gimhae Heo clans. The Gimhae Kims and Heos claim descent from the ancient Royal House of Geumgwan Gaya where the first king and his consort, King Suro-Sureung and Queen Boju Heo Hwang-ok are the progenitors of these clans. It is situated near the Nakdong River. Located at the southeastern tip of Korean peninsula, It borders Busan Gangseo-gu, and Changwon (Jinhae-gu, Uichang-gu and Seongsan-gu) on the southwest, and the Nakdong River divides Gimhae and Miryang on the north. The postal codes of Gimhae start from 50800 [341-27~613-259 Geumgok Avenue/Geumgok-ro, Saengnim-myeon] to 51021 [852~852-1 Jangyu Avenue/Jangyu-ro].

Gimhae is located in the temperate zone. It has four seasons which changes distinctly. Due to the influence of coastal climate, Gimhae is the mildest region in Korea and the climate is suitable for human activities. The annual average temperature is about 15℃, and annual average precipitation is 1,200mm, which is similar to that of Korea of 1,274mm and a little higher than that of world's average of 973mm.

The theory of six Gayas originated in the early Goryeo Period. In actuality, there were more than 10 small Gaya Kingdoms. In general, when the history of Gaya is mentioned, people think of the names of six Gayas. The first record of six Gayas can be found in the record of "5 Gaya Dynasties" in Samguk Yusa (the legend and history of Three Kingdoms written by Ilyeon in the Goryeo Period) written in the late Goryeo Period. In the record, 7 Gaya Kingdoms including Ara Gaya, Goryeong Gaya, Dae Gaya (Greater Gaya), Seongsan Gaya, So Gaya (Lesser Gaya), Geumgwan Gaya, and Bihwa Gaya were mentioned. These names were added to the legend of 6 eggs attached to the King Suro of Garak Kingdom. 

The concept of six Gayas was formed between the late Silla Period and early Goryeo Period. Therefore, the names of Gaya Kingdoms were not actually used at the time of their existence. But they were named later to indicate the Gaya confederation including Geumgwan Kingdom, Ara Kingdom, Godongnam Kingdom, Seongsan Kingdom and Bihwa Kingdom. It is not clear whether the 7 Gaya Kingdoms recorded in Samgukyusa were actually members of Gaya confederation. In addition, excavations of Gaya earthenware indicate that there were more than 10 Gaya Kingdoms. 

Therefore, it is time to overcome the theory of six Gayas Kingdoms and restructure the history of Gaya based on "Wiseo, Dongijeon" of Samgukji (History of Wi (Wei), Chok (Shu), and Oh (Wu) of China compiled by Jin Su. In the Dongijeon, histories of Korea and other nations in the east were recorded), Samguk Sagi (History of Three Kingdoms written by Kim Busik in the Goryeo Period), and Nihonshoki (History of Japan compiled in the Nara Period).

The City Hall is located at 2401 Gimhae Boulevard/Gimhae-daero, Buwon-dong 623-beonji with its postal code: 50924. The city mayor is Heo Seong-kon (Minjoo Party). While Min Hong-chul and Paul Kim Kyung-soo (Minjoo Party) serve as the district assemblymen for 20th Session of Gukhoe (2016-2020). Min Hong-chul represents for Gimhae-gap (1st Electoral District that covers JinYeong-eup, Hallim-myeon, Saengnim-myeon, Sangdong-myeon, Daedong-myeon, Dongsang-dong, Hoehyeon-dong, Buwon-dong, Bukbu-dong, Hwalcheon-dong, SamAn-dong and Buram-dong) while Paul Kim represents for Gimhae-eul (2nd Electoral District that covers  Juchon-myeon, Jillye-myeon, Naeoe-dong, ChilsanSeobu-dong and JangYu-dong).

Gimhae City consists a town (eup), 6 communes (myeon), 12 Administrative Precincts on 34 legal precincts as shown on the map below (in Hangul).